Source https://www.flickr.com/photos/evgo/6545153803/, license

Compare Lithium Ion Lead Acid
Cost to Charge Vehicle

Compared to Lead Acid

ENERGY DENSITY BY WEIGHT. Lithium-ion batteries have 3 times the energy density by weight of lead-acid batteries.  This means that for the same weight, a lithium-ion battery contains 3 times as much energy.  Source YouTube — Lithium Ion Battery Explained.

ENERGY DENSITY BY VOLUME. Lithium-ion batteries have 6 times the energy density by volume of lead-acid batteries.  This means that for the same volume (size)  a lithium-ion battery contains 6 times as much energy.  Source YouTube — Lithium Ion Battery Explained.

MEMORY EFFECT. Lead-acid batteries have very little memory effect.  Lithium-ion batteries are subject to memory effect when fully discharged, but when lithium-ion batteries are discharged to about 50% and recharged there is very little memory effect.  Source YouTube — Lithium Ion Battery Explained.

RECHARGE TIME. Lithium-ion batteries charge much faster than lead-acid batteries.  Source YouTube — Lithium Ion Battery Explained.

CELL VOLTAGE. Lithium-ion batteries are 3.7 volts/cell.  Lead-acid batteries are 2.0 volts/cell.  Source YouTube — Lithium Ion Battery Explained.

Cost to Charge an Electric Car

Source Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles at Home.

If an electric vehicle requires 34 kilowatt-hours (kWh) to travel 100 miles and the cost of electricity is $0.11 per kWh then the cost per mile is calculated as follows:

cost per mile = ($0.11 X 34)÷100 = 0.0374

About 4¢/mile.

If the parameters change . . . for instance if the cost of electricity was $.055 per kWh (five and a half cents per kilowatt-hour) then the cost per mile will be the following:

cost per mile = ($0.055 X 34)÷100 = 0.0187

About 2¢/mile.

Market Projections

Source CGlobal Market for Lithium-ion Batteries — Forecast, Trends, and Opportunities 2014-2020.

The global market for lithium-ion batteries was less than $10 billion in 2008 but is expected to exceed $30 billion in 2020 a factor of 300%; but this does not tell the whole story because prices have fallen by 80% or more since 2010, so the actual number of batteries produced increased by more than 10 times.

Manufacturing Costs

Source Battery Bro.

The cost to manufacture an 18650 battery (1500 mAh)  in the mid 90’s was about $10.  This cost has fallen to less than $2 and the capacity has doubled (3000 mAh).  The cost of lithium-ions for electric cars is expected to drop to less than $100/kWh in the next ten years.

Are They Green?

Source Study Finds Tesla Car Batteries Not Remotely Green.

Report shows battery manufacturing has high emissions.

 

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